OBV: LION TO RIGHT UPRAISED POW
REV: CONCH SHELL BETWEEN TWO TRIDENTS
Ref: MITCHINER KARNATAKA ANDHRA 179 -182
WEIGHT : 8gms (APPROX)
COPPER BARE ALLOY UNIT
Since the fall of the Ikshwakus, the Vishnukundins were the first great dynasty, which held sway way over the entire
Andhra country including Kalinga and parts of Telangana and
played an important and imperial role in the history of Deccan
during the 5th and 6th centuries of the Christian era. So far
9 copper-plate inscriptions and one stone inscription pertaining
to this dynasty have been discovered. Though they supply
us a lot of information, they do not speak any thing about
the origin and originator of the dynasty. Several attempts were
made to solve the problem. But no difinite conclusion has
yet been reached. It is generally believed that the Vishnukundins
were an Andhra family and they hailed from Vinukondd
in the Guntur district. On the basis of the discovery of two
tndrapalanagara grants, B.N. Sastri assumes that the early
rulers of the dynasty migrated to the west in search of employment
and under the Vakatakas they might have attained
feudatory status with Indrapalanagara in the Nalgonda district
as their capital. He further says that later in the time of
Madhavavarma, the great, they became independent and conquered
the coastal Andhra from the Salankayanas and might
have shifted their capital to a place in the coastal Andhra.
THE GENEALOGY OF THE V1SHNUKUNDINS : It has been
a matter of controversy. The scanty source material does not
give any clue to formulate a satisfactory theory. The inscriptions
give the names of the two or more of their forefathers
with their titles and achievements. But they do not speak
of any thing about the founder of the dynasty and about the
approximate date of their rule. Several writers have formulated
their own schemes, some maintaining that there was unilateral
succession and others proposing a scheme with colleteral
branches. The main difference between the two schools lies
in the identification of Madhava Varma, who was the performer
of many sacrifices. One school argues that there were
two kings with the name Madhava Varma of great repute and
the other schools point to the improbability of the two kings
of same name and time performing equal number of sacrifices
with in a short span of time.
Prior to the discovery of the Indrapalanagara plates, of
the earlier records, the Ipur plates second set was the earliest
on the basis of palaeography. It gives the following genealogy—
In point of antiquity, next comes the Ramatirtrram plates of
Indravarma and the Chikkulla and Tundi grants of Vikramendra
Varma These three records give the following genealogies—
RAMATIRTHAM CHIKKULLA TUNDl
72 HISTORY OF THE ANDHRAS
On the basis of the titles, the extolling epithets and other descriptions
of the rulers of the above three records, the following
genealogy may be arrived at —
Here M.S. Sharma and others identify Madhavavarma II of the
Ipuru plates second set with Madhavavarma of the above three
records. This is untenable because the Trikuta-malayadhipati'
Madhavavarma of the Ipuru plates-ll set was not a performer
of many sacrifices and not Maharaja tike Madhavavarma of the
other grants. On the other hand the epithets given to Madhavavarma
I of the same lpur-ll set and those attributed to the
Madhavavarma of the three records seem to be similar. Therefore
it is probable that Madhava Varma I of the Ipur second
set and Madhavavarma of the other grants were one and the
same. If so Maharaja Madhava Varma had two sons—Devavarma
and Vikramendravarma (through the Vakataka princess).
Accordingly the following genealogy may be derived —
The Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri . 73
On the basis of the similarities in the two records, the following
pedigree may be arrived at —
Now in combining the first (I) and second (II) pedigrees
to arrive at final conclusion, scholars differ from one another
in assuming Madhavavarma of the Ipur I set and Polamuru
plates to be the same at Maharaja Madhava Varma of the other
records. Dr. D.C. Sircar, Dr. Ramarao and K. Gopalachari
advocate the following shorter genealogy —
However a careful examination of the titles of Mahandravarma
of the Ipur plates-l set and Polamuru grant and those of
Madhavavarma of the other grants and the other evidences
point out there were two Madhavavarmas of great repute :
(1) Dr. Hultzch thinks that the Ipur plates-II set was earlier
than the Ipur ptates-I set.
74 HISTORY OF THE ANDHRAS
(2) The Ipur plates-l set and Polamuru plates indicate The
matrimony of Madhavavarma with the princess of Tivaranagara
whereas Maharaja Madhavavarma of the other records is said
to have married the Vakataka Princess,
(3) The title 'Janasraya' given to Madhavavarma in the
Polamuru grant is not given to Madhavavarma of the other
(4) Further the donee Sivasharma of the Polamuru inscription
of Madhavavarma was the father of Rudrasharma, the donee
of another Polamuru inscription of the Eastern Chalukya Jayasimha
I. If this Polamuru Madhavavarma was the same as
Maharaja Madhavavarma of the other records, there would
be a gap of a century or more between Madhava Varma and
Jayasimha I which is unwarranted.
(5) Moreover the reference to Madhavavarma in the literary
work 'Sri Krishna Vijaya' of a later date and the reference to
his rule in Saka 514 in an inscription of the 12th century A.D.
in the Malliswaraswamy temple at Vijayawada definitely place
one Madhavavarma at the end of the dynasty.
If these two Madhavavarmas were not one and the same,
then how to combine the first and the second genealogical
lists? Dr. N.V. Ramanayya identifies Vikramahendra of the
Polamuru inscription with Vikramendravarma I of the other
grants. But the epithets show that Vikramahendra was a more
powerful king than Vikramendravarma I. On the other hand
Vikramahendra may be identified with Vikramendravarma II
because the titles given to the former were more or less similar
to those of the latter. This identification alone would place
Madhavavarma (Ipur I set) at the end of the dynastic lists,
who was probably uprooted by the Eastern Chalukyan ruler,
or it may be his son who faced this calamity. Hence K.A.N.
Sastri and others give the following genealogy—
The Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri 75
Almost all the scholars unanimously agree that the Indrapalanagara
grant of Vikramendra II gives the same genealogy as
we have already had from Maharaja Madhavavarma to Vikramendravarma
II. But it adds one more name that of Govindavarma
(prior to Maharaja Madhavavarma) to the genealogy
already arrived at.
In regard to the place of the kings given in the Indrapalanagara
grant of Govindavarma in Vishnukundin genealogy.
Dr. Rama Rao thinks that the rulers mentioned in the grant
of Govindavarma (Maharaja Indravarma, his son Madhavavarma
and his son Govindavarma) could be collaterals who occupied
the Vishnukindin territory after Vikramendravarma II. Or. Rama
Rao and Prof. Mirashi try to fill in the gap between 569 A.D,
and 615 A.D. or 624 A.D. the former being the last date of
Vikramendravarma II and the latter being the date of the
Eastern Chalukyan occupation of Vengi from these collecterals
However Dr. Ramacrrandraiya and B.N. Sastri fill in this gap
by placing here the genealogy of the Polamuru grant and the
Ipur plates I set, i.e. by identifying Vikramendravarma II with
How are we then to explain the relationship of the three
kings given in the Indrapalanagara grant of Govindavarma with
76 HISTORY OF THE ANDHRAS
the other known kings? After a careful study of the two
Indrapalanagara grants. Dr. Ramachandraiya and B.N. Sastri
come to the conclusion that the Indrapatanagara grant of
Govindavarma was the first record of the Vishnukundins and
that Govindavarma of the Indrapalanagara grant (issuer) and
Govinda Raja of the Indrapalanagara grant of Vikramendra
Bhattaraka were one and the same. The basis for the identification
is the leanings of the two Govindavarmas towards
Buddhism. Thus with the above assumptions, we get—
CHRONOLOGY:— Opinion is actutely divided even with
regard to the chronology of the Vishnukundins Their rule
may be fixed between the end of the Salankayanas and the
rise of the Eastern Chalukyan power in 624 AD "The last
year of the Salankayana rule is dated differently by different
scholars on the basis of varying theories of Satavahana chronology.
So naturally the initial year of the Vishnukundin rule
The Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri 77
varies from historian to historian". All the Vishnukundin grants
with the lone exception of the Indrapalanagana inscription of
Vikramendravarma II were dated in the regnal years. The
Indrapalanagara grant of Vikramendravarma II was dated in his
11th regnal year corresponding to Saka 488, With the help
of this date and taking into consideration the latest regnal
years known from the inscriptions as the last years of rule
of the rulers, the chronology of the Vishnukundins may be
On the basis of the Indrapalanagara grant dated in the
11th regnal year corresponding to Saka 488, Vikramendravarma
II may be said to have ascended the throne in Saka 477
i.e., 555 A.D. His Tundi grant gives his latest regnal year as
fourteen. So his reign period may be placed between 555 A.D.
and 569 A.D. His father Indravarma II, who issued the Ramatirtham
plates in his 27th regnal year might have ruled from
528 A.D. to 555 A.D. Vikramendravarma I, the father and
predecessor of Indravarma II was the off-spring of a political
marriage between the Vishnukundin and the Vakataka families.
In accordance with the general principle, he can be assigned
25 years rule i.e., from 503 A.D. to 528 A.D.
The father of Vikramendravarma I i.e., Madhavavarma II
had no record of his son. But in the records of his descendants,
he was described as the greatest ruler of the Vishnukundins.
The year 47 mentioned in the Ipur plates-II set issued
by Madhava, son of Devavarma and grandson of the above said
Madhava II. may be taken to be the year of Madhava II. Scholars
do not consider Devavarma a ruler because he did not possess
any royal titles. Devavarma's son Madhava was referred simply
as Adhiraja and Trikuta-Malayadhipati, indicating the subordinate
position of a feaudatory prince. Owing to the unusual
longevity of the reign of Madhava II, his elder son, Devavarma
predeceased his father and Madhava. son of Devavarma might
have been made viceroy for the territory around Trikutamalaya.
So the 47th year of the Ipur plates-ll set should foe that of
Madhava II, who must have ruled from 456 A.D. to 503 A.D,
78 HISTORY OF THE ANDHRAS
Govindavarma I, father of Madhava II was the issuer of
one Indrapalanagara grant dated in his 37th regnal year. So
he might have ruled between 419 A.D. and 456 A.D. His
predecessors, Indravarma I and Madhavavarma I who were
having the title Maharaja should be deemed to have ruled in
their own right. In general, 25 years rule, for each of them,
may be allotted.
Now coming to the successors of Vikramendravarma II
(555-69 A.D.), Janasraya Madhavavarma IV issued the Polamuru
inscription in his 48th year on a full moon day in the
month of Phalguna when Lunar eclipse occurred. 621 A.D.
may conveniently be taken as the date of Potemuru record
because it brings the Vishnukundins close to the beginning of
the Eastern Chalukyan rule in 624 A.D. (which was fixed by
Dr. N.V. Ramanayya and supported by Dr. N. Ramesan). So
621 A.D. was the 48th regnal year of Madhava IV. Consequently
his reign period should be 573 A.D.-621 A.D. Madhava's father
Govindavarma II was now left with only four years (569-573
A.D.). Because no special achievement was attributed to him,
it may said that he might have died at an early age.
As regards the last ruler overthrown by the Eastern
Chalukyas in 624 A.D., there is no definite information. If it
were Madhava IV, he might have ruled for 3 more years after
the issue of Polamuru plates. If the 48th year is the last year
of Madhava IV, Manchana Bhattaraka, as his dear son, might
have succeeded him in 621 A.D. and the Eastern Chalukyan
catestrophe fell on this victim in 624 A.D. Thus we get the
Following chronology :—
The Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri 79
POLITICAL HISTORY OF THE VISHNUKUND1NS
The Vishnukundins were the main orbit of power in the
eastern Deccan during the fifth and sixth centuries A.D. As
their affinity with Sriparvataswami (Lord Mallikharjuna of
Srisailam) and their family name Vishnukundin (derived from
Vishnukundinapura which may be identified with modern Vinukonda
in Guntur district) definitely trace their origin in Guntur
district, it may be assumed that the early rulers of the dynasty
migrated to the West in search of employment. Under the
Vakatakas. They might have attained feudatory status with
Indrapalanagara (Tummalagudem) in Nalgonda district as their
capital. Later in the time of Madhavarma, the great, they
became independent and conquered coastal Andhra from the
Salankayanas and might have shifted their capital to a place
in the coastal Andhra.
According to the Indrapalanagara plates, Maharaja Indravarma
is considered to be the first ruler of the dynasty. He
might have carved out a small principality for himself probably
as a subordinate of the Vakatakas sometime about the last
quarter of the fourth century A.D. Not much information is
known about the next two kings, Madhavarma I and his son
Govindavarma. They might have kept in tact the inheritance
or extended their sway to some extent.
80 HISTORY OF THE ANDHRAS
By the middle of the 5th century A.D., the dynasty began
its imperial expansion under its most efficient ruler Madhavarma
(II), the great. The reign of Madhavavarma (461-508 A.D.)
nearly for half a century is a golden age in the history of the
Vishnukundins. It was during this period, the small Vishnukundin
dynasty was raised to the imperial dignity. A princess
of the then powerful ruling family of the Deccan the Vakatakas
was given in marriage to Madhavarma's son, Vikramendravarma.
This alliance with the great power made easy the task of
extending the Vishnukundin influence to the east coast and
vanquishing the petty chieftains lingering on in that area.
Madhavavarma II led his arms against Anandagotrins who
were ruling over Guntur, Tenali and Ongole Taluks, probably
enjoying subordinate position under the Pallavas of Kanchi.
After occupying these areas from the Anandagotrins, he made
Amarapura (modern Amaravati his capital. Keeping in view
the constant threat from the Pallavas, he created an out-post
to check their activities and appointed his son, Devavarma and
after his death the grandson Madhavavarma III as its Viceroy.
This southern out-post 'Trikutamalaya' is identified with Kotappakonda
in Narasaraopet Taluk in the Guntur district.
Madhavavarma II next turned his attention against the
Vengi kingdom which was under the Salankayanas. The Vengi
region was annexed. The Godavari tract became pan of the
Vishnukundin territory. After these conquests the capital might
have been shifted to Bezwada, a more central place than
Amarapura. These extensive conquests entitle him to the title
of the lord of Dakshinapatha. After these various conquests.,
Madhavavarma performed many Asvamedha, Rajasuya and
The fortunes of the Vishnukundins were at a tow ebb during
the reign of next ruler Vikramendravarma I (508-528 A.D.). The
next two and half decades also experienced the constant strife
and dynastic struggles during the reign period of Indrabhattarakavarma
(528-555 A.D.). Though Indrabhattaraka overcame the
troubles from the day a das like his cousin Madhavavarma III
The Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri 81
(Trikutamalayadhipati), he could not withstand the hostile
Kaling subordinate Indravarma of the Jirjingi plates and lost
his life. The Vishnukundins lost their Kalinga possessions north
of the Godavari.
With the accession of Vikramendravarma II (555-569 A.D),
the fallen prestige of the Vishnukundin family was restored
To have an immediate access to the Kalinga region, he shifted
his capital from Bezwada to Lenduluru (modem Denduluru
in the West Godavari district). He repulsed the attack of the
Pailava ruler Simhavarman. He was successful enough to
restore the fortunes of the Vishnukundins in the Kalinga region.
After the victory, he donated Tundi (Tuni) village to a Brahmin
and styled himself as 'Uttamasraya'. His son Govindavarma II
enjoyed comparatively a short period of rule (569-573 A.D.).
The Vishnukundin empire set its way again to the imperial
expansions and cultural prosperity under its able ruler 'Janssraya'
Madhavavarma (IV) (573-621 A.D.). This prudent king
spent his early years of rule in consolidating his position in
Vengi. The later part of his reign is marked by wars and
annexations. According to his epithets in Ipur I set and
Polamuru plates, Madhavavarma IV conquered Tivara, the
Somavamsi king of Mahakosala and married his daughter and
spent sometime in their capital, Trivaranagara. In his 37th
regnal year, he suppressed the revolt of his subordinate chief
the Durjaya Prithvimaharaja in Guddadivishya (modern Ramachandrapuram
Taluk in the East Godavari district).
Madhavarma IV had to face the Chalukyan onsteught in
his last years of rule. By about 616 A.D., Pulakesin II and his
brother Kubja Vishnuvardhane conquered Vengi from Vishnukundins
and the Pithspuram area from their subordinate
Durjayas. In 621 A.D. i.e., in his 48th regnal year, Madhava
crossed the Godavari probably to oust the Chalukyas from his
territories. However he lost his life on the battle-field. His
son Manchanabhattaraka also might have been expelled by the
Chalukyas. Thus the Vishnukundin rule was brought to a
close by 624 A.D.
82 HISTORY OF THE ANDHRAS
It is really a venture to try to speak, on the basis of a few
records available, about the contribution of the Vishnukundins
in various walks of life during that period. The society of the
period appears to be based upon the traditional Hindu four-fold
caste system. The Vishnukundins belonged to the priestly
class committed to arms. The fourth class swelled the military
ranks, in general people lived in harmony.
For administrative convenience, the empire might have
been divided into a number of rashtras and Vishayas. Inscriptions
refer to Palki rashtra. Karma rashtra, Guddadi vishaya etc.
The ruler carried on administration depending upon the Sukraniti.
Madhavavarma III as the Trikutamalayadhipati shows the
appointment of members of the royal family as Viceroys for
strategical areas. Vishayemahattaras might have been the heads
of the vishayas. It seems that villages enjoyed autonomy within
In judicial administration, the king was the highest court
of appeal. Endowed with the knowledge of law and intelligence,
the Vishnukundin rulers established various kinds of ordeals
(divyas) in trails of disputes. They were known for their
impartial judgment and high sense of justice. Their army
consisted of traditional Chaturangabala. Hastikosa (officer-incharge
of elephant forces) and Virakosa (officer-in-charge of
land forces) were referred in records. These officers issued
even grants on behalf of the kings. There might have been a
well-organised administrative machinery for collection of land
revenue. Agrahara villages enjoyed tax exemptions. Sixteen
types of coins of the Vishnukundin rulers, brought to light by
Dr. R. Subrahmanyam, speak well of the economic prosperity
of the kingdom.
All the records of the Vishnukundins throw a flood of light
on the religious conditions of the period. The kings prior to
The Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri 83
Madhavavarma II seem to be patrons of Buddhism. Govindavarma
I was hailed as the Buddhist and builder of stupas and
Viharas. His wife Paramabhattarikamahadevi also patronised
Buddhism and built a monastery. Vikramendravaima II, though
a 'paramamahesvara', made liberal grants to the same Mahadevi's
Buddhist vihara. These things show that Buddhism
was a considerable force to be reckoned with during the
However from the time of accession of Madhavavarma II,
an aggressive self-assertion of the Vedic brahmanism is to be
seen in Andhradesa. Elaborate Vedic ceremonies like Rajasuya,
Purushamedha, Sarvamedha and Aswamedha were undertaken.
The celebration of all these sacrifices represents the militant
spirit of the brahmanical revival. Some of the rulers styled
themselves as Paramamahesvaras. The inscriptions refer to
their family deity Sriparvataswami (Lord Mallikarjuna of Srisailam).
The names of rulers like Madhavavarma, Govindavarma
etc. show their Vaishnava leanings. Thus both the sects
might have received equal patronage from them. Rock-cut
cave temples were constructed at Bezwada, Vimdavalli and
Bhairavakonda which were dedicated to both the sects.
The Vishnukundins were also great patrons of learning-
Learned brahmins were encouraged by gifts of lands and
ghatikasthanas (colleges) were established for the propagation
of Vedic studies. Being a greet believer in the efficacy of
sanatanadharma, Indrabhattaraka established many Ghatikesthanas
for imparting education on Vedic literature. Performance
of several elaborate Vedic ceremonies by Madhavarmas imply
the faith of the rulers in Brahmanism and popularity of Vedic
learning with the people during this period.
Apart from being patrons of learning, some of the Vishnukundin
kings were by themselves men of letters of high cadre.
Vikramendravarma I was described as 'Mahakavi' in a record.
Further, an incomplete work on Sanskrit poetics called 'Janasraya
Chhandovichhiti', was attributed to Madhavarma IV who
bore the title of 'Janasraya'. As is known from the available
records, Sanskrit enjoyed royal patronage. Telugu had not
yet grown to the stature of receiving royal patronage.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
Being great devotees of Siva, the Vishnukundins seem to
have been responsible for construction of a number of cave
temples dedicated to Siva, The cave structures at Bezwada,
Mogalrajapuram, Vundavalli and Bhairavakonds were dated to
this period. Though some of these cave temples were attributed
to the Pallavas (Mahendravarma I), the emblems found on the
caves and the areas being under the rule of the Vishnukundins
during this period clearly show that these were contributions
of the Vishnukundins. The big four-storeyed cave at Vundavalli
and the 8 cave temples in Bhairavakonda in Nellore district show
however clear resemblances with the architecture of Pallava
The Vishnukundina Empire was one of the Middle kingdoms of India, controlling the Deccan, Orissa and parts of South India during the 5th and 6th centuries, carving land out from the Vakataka Empire. It played an important role in the history of the Deccan during the 5th and 6th centuries CE. They are believed to be one of the ancestors of Pusapatis of Vizianagaram and three other clans of Kshatriya Raju community in Andhra Pradesh.
By 514 C.E., the Vakatakas were reduced to the areas of present day Telangana area. The area north of the Godavari, Kalinga, became independent. The area south of the Krishna River fell to the Pallavas. The Vishnukundin reign came to an end with the conquest of the eastern Deccan by the Chalukya, Pulakesi II. Pulakesi appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as Viceroy to rule over the conquered lands. Eventually Vishnuvardhana declared his independence and started the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.
Origin of Vishnukundins
Vishnukundina is a Sanskritized name for Vinukonda. Several attempts have been made by scholars to find out the origins of this dynasty, but no definite conclusions have been reached as of yet. One theory states that they are of Vasistha gotra of Kshatriyas who migrated from Ayodhya (Oudh) during the early 5th century. The early rulers of the dynasty migrated to the west in search of employment and under the Vakatakas they might have attained feudatory status. They had Indrapalanagara in the Nalgonda district as their capital.
During the reign of Madhava Varma the Great, they became independent and conquered coastal Andhra from the Salankayanas and might have shifted their capital to a place in the Coastal Andhra.
The Vishnukundin reign might be fixed between the end of the Salankayana and the rise of the Eastern Chalukyan power in 624 AD. Some historians mention Vishnukundins reign was from 420 CE to 624 CE, while some other historian say there reign was from early 5th Century CE to 7th Century CE.
Main article: Indra Varma
According to the Indra Pala Nagara plates, Indra Varma is considered to be the first ruler of the Vishnukundin dynasty. He might have carved out a small principality for himself probably as a subordinate of the Vakatakas sometime about the last quarter of the fourth century C.E. Not much information is known about the next two kings, Madhav Varma I and his son Govinda Varma. They might have kept intact the inheritance or extended their sway to some extent.
Madhav Varma II
By the middle of the 5th century A.D., the dynasty began its imperial expansion under its most efficient ruler Madhav Varma II who ruled for nearly half a century. The reign of Madhav Varma (461-508 C.E.) was a golden age in the history of the Vishnukundins. It was during this period, the small Vishnukundin dynasty rose to imperial heights. A princess of the then powerful ruling family of the Deccan the Vakatakas was given in marriage to Madhav Varma's son, Vikramendra Varma.
This alliance gave them great power and made it easy for them to extend their influence to the east coast and vanquishing the petty chieftains lingering on in that area. Madhav Varma II led his arms against Ananda Gotrikas who were ruling over Guntur, Tenali and Ongole, probably enjoying subordinate position under the Pallavas of Kanchipuram.
After occupying these areas from the Ananda Gotrikas, Madhav Varma II made Amarapura (modern Amaravati) his capital. Keeping in view the constant threat from the Pallavas, he created an out-post to check their activities and appointed his son, Deva Varma and after his death the grandson Madhav Varma III as its Viceroy.
Madhav Varma II next turned his attention against the Vengi kingdom which was under the Salankayanas. The Vengi region was annexed. The Godavari tract became part of the Vishnukundin territory. After these conquests the capital might have been shifted to Bezwada (Vijayawada), a more central location than Amarapura. These extensive conquests entitle him to the title of the lord of Dakshinapatha (southern country). After these various conquests Madhav Varma performed many Asvamedha, Rajasuya and other Vedic sacrifices.
Successors of Madhav Varma II
The fortunes of the Vishnukundins were at a low point during the reign of next ruler Vikramendra Varma I (508–528 C.E.). The next two and half decades also experienced the constant strife and dynastic struggles during the reign of Indra Bhattaraka Varma (528–555 C.E.). Though Indra Bhattaraka could not withstand the hostile Kalinga subordinate, Indra Varma and lost his life in battle. The Vishnukundins lost their Kalinga possessions north of the Godavari.
Vikramendra Varma II
With the accession of Vikramendra Varma II (555–569 C.E), the fortunes of the Vishnukundin family were restored. To have an immediate access to the Kalinga region, he shifted his capital from Bezwada to Lenduluru (modem Denduluru in the West Godavari district). He repulsed the attack of the Pallava ruler Simhavarman. He was successful enough to restore the fortunes of the Vishnukundins in the Kalinga region. His son Govinda Varma II enjoyed a comparatively short period of rule (569–573 C.E.).
Govinda Varma II
The Vishnukundin empire set about again to imperial expansion and cultural prosperity under its able ruler Janssraya Madhav Varma IV (573-621 A.D.). This prudent king spent his early years of rule in consolidating his position in Vengi. The later part of his reign is marked by wars and annexations. In his 37th regnal year, he suppressed the revolt of his subordinate chief the Durjaya Prithvi Maharaja in Guddadivishya (modern Ramachandrapuram in the East Godavari district).
Madhav Varma IV had to face the Chalukyan onslaught in his last years of rule. By about 616 CE, Pulakesin II and his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana conquered Vengi from the Vishnukundins and the Pithapuram area from their subordinate Durjayas. In 621 C.E. in his 48th regnal year, Madhava crossed the Godavari probably to oust the Chalukyas from his territories. However he lost his life on the battlefield. His son Manchana Bhattaraka also might have been expelled by the Chalukyas. Thus the Vishnukundin rule was brought to a close by 624 A.D.