The Vijayanagar dominion gradually expanded over South India and divided the administration into three important provinces, which were under the control of Nayaks. These were the Nayaks of Madura, Nayaks of Tanjore and Gingee. Information about the Gingee Nayaks and their rule is very scanty. It is said that Tupakula Krishnappa Nayaka (1490 to 1521) of Chandragiri family was the founder of the Nayaka line of Gingee kings. He seems to have ruled gloriously all over the coast from Nellore down to the Coleroon up to 1521 A.D. Under the Nayaks the Forts were strengthened and the town was greatly enlarged.
The last Nayak of Gingee was forced to surrender to the Bijapur army towards the end of December 1649 A.D. The booty acquired by the Mohammedan rulers of Bijapur was 20 crores of rupees in cash and jewels. Gingee assumed a new and enhanced strategic importance under the Bijapur governors. Bijapur was in possession of the fortress of Gingee till 1677 A.D., when the famous Sivaji, the son of Shaji fell upon it in his momentous Carnatic expedition. The Marathas greatly strengthened and fortified its defences.