Pliny, in the 1st century AD, recorded that the representative of Pandiyan kings invited him to places south of Thrissur (Kodungalloor), which were under the suzerainty of the Pandiyan king, offering spices. The Pandyan kings had their capital at Nelkinda (Nelcynda) (Niranam), while Thiruvattuvai Nadu (Thiruvalla), Quilon and Pandalam were minor capitals. The Ay Vel rulers of this area were vassals of the Pandyan kings.
Venad included most of modern day Kollam, the Thiruvananthapuram districts of Kerala, and the Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu. Trivandrum was established as its capital by Nedumchadaya Pandyan after consecrating the Sri Padmanabha Swami Idol in 785 AD.
Venad was the forerunner to the modern Kingdom of Travancore, established by King Marthanda Varma, who annexed Ilayidathu Swarupam (Kottarakkara), Desinga Nadu (Kollam), Pandalam, Kayamkulam, Chempakasseri (Ambalappuzha), Thekkumkur (Kottayam), Vadakkumkur (Vaikkam), and some parts of Kochi to Venad.